Service on TPO machines are often run as regular users, from normal sessions, instead of the usual /etc/init.d or systemd configuration provided by Debian packages. This is part of our service vs system admin distinction.

This page aims at documenting how such services are started and managed. There are many ways this can be done: many services have been started as a @reboot cronjob in the past, but we're looking at using systemd --user as a more reasonable way to do this in the future.

systemd startup

Most Debian machines now run systemd which allows all sorts of neat tricks. In particular, it allows us to start programs as a normal user through a systemd --user session that gets started automatically at boot.

Adding a new service

User-level services are deployed in ~/.config/systemd/user/. Let's say we're deploying a service called $SERVICE. You'd need to craft a .service file and drop it in ~/.config/systemd/user/$SERVICE.service:

Description=Run a program forever that does not fork

ExecStart=/home/role/bin/service start


Then you can run:

systemctl --user daemon-reload

For the new file to be notified.

If you're getting an error like this:

Failed to connect to bus: No such file or directory

It's because your environment is not setup correctly and systemctl can't find the correct sockets. Try to set the XDG_RUNTIME_DIR environment to the right user directory:

export XDG_RUNTIME_DIR=/run/user/$(id -u)

Then the service can be enabled:

systemctl --user enable $SERVICE

And then started:

systemctl --user start $SERVICE

sysadmin stuff

On the sysadmin side, to enable systemd --user session, we need to run loginctl enable-linger $USER. For example, this will enable the session for the user $USER:

exec {
  "loginctl enable-linger $USER":
    creates => "/var/lib/systemd/linger/$USER";

This will create an empty file for the user in /var/lib/systemd/linger/ but it will also start the systemd --user session immediately, which can already be used to start other processes.

cron startup

This method is now discouraged, but is still in use for older services.

Failing systemd or admin support, you might be able to start services at boot time with a cron job.

The trick is to edit the role account crontab with sudo -u role crontab -e and then adding a line like:

@reboot /home/role/bin/service start

It is deprecated because cron is not a service manager and has no way to restart the service easily on upgrades. It also lacks features like socket activation or restart on failure that systemd provides. Plus it won't actually start the service until the machine is rebooted, that's just plain silly.

The correct way to start the above service is to use the .service file documented in the previous section.